Engines today are under heavy development due to a need for reduction in emissions and increased fuel efficiency. The main resulting trend is down-sizing of engines and improvement in efficiency, as well as the search for alternatives to the internal combustion engine. This leads to heavy investments in R&D.
Below are some examples of developments in this area:
Improved casting technologies
More use of turbo chargers (up to three per engine)
High strength materials (aluminum, steel, cast iron)
Combined materials, Bi-metal and Tri-metal
High pressure fuel systems
Battery technology and fuel cells